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Why did Ireland split up into a Northern and southern republic?

Why and when did Ireland split into two - leaving Northern and the sothern republic as two seperate factions?

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carol p
England use to rule the north and south but the south had what they called the Easter uprising and proclaim themselves a republic they asked the north to join them they refused ........ later on the north asked to be free from England and they were told to set up a Parliament and let the people vote ...they voted to stay with England sadly the people who did this voting are now dead

Referring to Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland as "two separate factions" makes it sound like they are against each other. That is not the case.
Let's start with the Easter rising in 1916. This rebellion (after a long history of other unsuccessful attempts) was not actually all that successful. However, after the British rounded up the instigators/freedom fighters they elected to execute most of them. A notable exception was Eamon De Valera who later went on to become a Taoiseach (Prime Minister) and President of Ireland, because he was born in the USA and the brits didn't want the political repercussion of executing a US citizen! but I digress! After these executions the people were incensed to a new level and greater support to the rebellion now after the fact. However, the country did fall into civil war. Long story here. Finally, Michael Collins was sent to London to negogiate with the British Government and not having instant messaging etc.... he went ahead and agreed to the Treaty in which The Irish Free State would be formed. Britain kept the 6 counties of Northern Ireland and 3 of the ports in the south. These had significant economic advantages for the brits. Remember that Ulster (the 6 counties part was way more industrialized than the south) and had a major shipyard (H & W) near Belfast that was strategic for the Brits. As it turned out it was hard for them to keep hold of the other 3 ports so they fell back to the Irish. Afterwards the Irish Free state as it was known then made their own constitution and government and became known as the Repbulic of Ireland. Yes, the industrialized north was mostly Protestant and loyal to the crown, hence the name Loyalists and the south were mostly Catholic and had no allegiance to the crown and were in favor of an independant republic. The north and south do not fight against each other and they were not the two sides of the civil war.
The reason the North was predominantly Prostestant goes back 600years to the plantation of Ulster, when English subjects who had found favor with the Crown, were given tracts of land in Ireland as reward for whatever deeds they had done. This happened in the whole country, Sir Walter Raleigh was given a large estate in Cork, but they tended to keep the area argricultural whereas the North became industrialized with time making it more profitable for Britain to hold onto. Each sentence of my answer could be an essay in itself so if you are truly interested in learning more check out the history books, and don't believe the drivel coming from some answerers.

Ireland was part of the United Kingdom not the British Empire. What became the Republic of Ireland first left the UK as the Irish Free State in 1921. (Southern Ireland was applicable then but the term is no longer used and is a bit insulting to Irish people.)

The reason for the split was that the majority of Irish in the three other provences(Leinster, Munster and Connacht) and three counties in the provence of Ulster wanted full independence from the UK. Religion was an issue, however it wasn't the main issue. It was more self determination. This was achieved by force of arms by the IRA, Irish Republican Army. This cannot be confused by its latter day recreation who are a blight on the Irish Psyche. The reamaining six counties in Ulster remained part of the UK, this made a lot of people in the Free State unhapping and Civil War insued.

After the split, the Catholic minority in Ulster were pursicuted and the civil rights movement started in the sixities, this was harshly crushed by the protestant majority and what is called the Provisional IRA started it's terrorist campaign.

You know whats annoying? People who attempt to answer a question when they havent a bloody clue what they are talkin about. This mostly done by dumb *** americans who havent got a ****** clue what they are talking about, jesus, they make me mad. I m from dublin, here pick up a ****** history book or something, or check it on the net.

At the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th, Ireland wanted Home Rule - to be ruled by its own parliament. Britain was reluctant for obvious reasons. When war broke out in 1914, John Redmond, the leader of the Home Rule party encouraged Irish men to fight with Britain in Europe in the hope that Britain would then grant Home Rule.
As the war dragged on, the men who separated from John Redmond and his volunteer force decided to organise an uprising to free Ireland once and for all. The majority of people in Ireland however were against the uprising, and it is only when the leaders of the rising were brutally executed the opinion of the people began to sway in the favour of the 'rebels'. There followed the War of Independance which was essentially guerilla warfare - Irish volunteers against the Black and Tans and Auxilliary forces. The War of Independance lasted from 1919 to 1921 with an uneasy truce. Talks about a treaty beyween Britain and Ireland soon began after. It was always going to be difficult to decide on terms and unfortunately the treaty came at a great price. Eamon de Valera (a prominant Irish politician), sent an envoy to Britain to negotiate the terms. One of the men was Michael Collins who played an integral part in the War of Independance. From my studies of the treaty, I feel de Valera knew that Ireland would get a raw deal no matter what and so sent Michael Collins to be the "fall guy" as such. Britain's terms were that Ireland would become a Free State and have it's own government, but the counties of Fermanagh, Tyrone, Armagh, Derry, Antrim and Down could opt out of the Free State which they did. This treaty was unsatisfactory to the majority of the country and the country was split in two. This led to a bloody war which lasted from 1922-1923. No side "won" really, everything reached a stalemate, and unfortunately people are still divided over the treaty, eighty years on.

why don't you watch the movie "The wind that shook the barley" it gives an insight to the whole story,worth watching.

James H
i didn't realise there were so many feckin irish experts on yahoo

ems dublin
they split up 1922 when the treaty with england was signed by michael collins to end the conflict between the two countyrs. why the country was split in two, starts from a long time back and many different reasons. But the main reason was that Unionists(mainly protestants that lived in Northern Ireland) did not want to be governed by an Irish government as they felt they would be treated unfairly. So because of their objections in the house of commons Northern Ireland remained under english rule.

To Darrahfarrell66 -
While I agree with you it's annoying to read answers from people who haven't a clue what they're talking about, but to then go on and say "it's mostly dumba$$ americans" shows your own lack of knowledge. Here's one for you and the horse you rode in on!

I love Ireland and love her people, however, had "dumba$$" America not been there with open arms to Ireland during the Irish migrations over the years, the Irish economy would probably still be in the toilet!

Orla C
Ireland was partitioned in 1921, as a compromise towards becoming an independent nation. Prior to this, it had been part of the British Empire, and remained in the British Commonwealth until 1936.

The island was partitioned because the Protestant population was concentrated in the Northern part, due to large-scale resettlements of English and Scottish farmers and tradesmen during the 1600s and 1700s.

However, what people don't generally realise is that there are many Irish Protestants still living - quite happily - in the south and nobody really pays much attention to this. There is, however, considerable attention paid to Catholics living in the predominantly Protestant Northern Ireland, as during the 1960s and 1970s they were seen as fair game by violent Protestant extremists, which had the result in the IRA coming out of hiding ... and it got really messy after that. A prime example of why religion should be kept separate from politics.

However, thanks to the efforts of many people, including the forthright and very brave Mo Mowlam and the late David Irvine, this situation is very much changed, and while there will always be extremists looking for to cause trouble, the people of Northern Ireland have for many years now laid aside their differences in order to work together.

Ireland was invaded by the English and after alot of fighting and Civil wars [Well, there was only really one of them] Britain came to a comprimise and said they would take 6 counties in the north, so a boundry committee was set up to draw out the border, they mainly looked at the towns and what was the main religion in the area, i.e. Were the people Catholic or Protestant. If they were mainly Catholic that town went to the "south" or the Republic of Ireland, if it was mainly protestant it went to the "North" ruled by the English. Of course this was obviously done wrong as Derry is mainly made up of Catholics, and yet was given to the English. The English took that part of the country mainly for the ammount of protestants who supported the English there [These Protestants were "Planted" there by the brittish to try and wipe out the Republican Irish] Also it had good land and they saw a great future in the Linen industry there, However they were wrong, as N.Ireland now makes no money for Britain due to the fact most linen comes from third world countries, so all n.Ireland does for the Brittish is lose them money. But they still wont give it back to the Irish... Greedy B*******

Irish people wanted freedom from the evil empire but the British broke Ireland apart for 3% of Unionist and smashed all city's as the went by the black and tans and murdered every one the could nasty lot Ireland will never be at true peace until its rid of British interference.

What Aine said..
Though if you ask some people, it's because Michael Collins sold the country out.

Sonu S
Religion believe it or not the root of it all was religion one size followed the church of England the other Roman church. dividing the once a united country into 2. great things can be learned from our past. more knowledge then we could use but religion should not be one of them

Ireland was apart of the British Empire and when we we're giving them their independence we kept the top bit because of the support there was for us being a mostly protestant area where the south was exclusively catholic

when england decided to free ireland as an independent country- the catholics didn't support it as everyone else in ireland were protestants!
to please all parties england divided it into 2- northern ireland (4 da catholics who wanted to remain a part of the UK) n 'independent' southern ireland- who like to call themselves Ireland!

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